• 2005-03-25

    * 关于上坟--再次怀旧

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    关于上坟--再次怀旧
    2005-3-25 星期五(Friday) 晴

     

      有人说我们都喜欢怀旧。当我读到一个叫Peter Hessler的美国人在他的River Town一书里读到描述涪陵(注意不是Pei陵榨菜)人清明上坟的过程的时候,我实在禁不住回想起自己小时候大年初一跟外婆外公旗下的一大家子人去上坟的情形。因为我的老家南川,在并入重庆直辖市以前就属于涪陵地区的管辖范围,除了没有在长江和乌江的边上,其它的东西,风俗习惯人文地理原是一气的。书里虽然是 英语,但实在是描写得太真切了,勾画出来的一幕幕就像在我眼前 - 我太熟悉那些坡坡坎坎的山路、早春盛开的油菜花和在山谷里鞭炮的回响了。
      "Fireworks explode on the summit, the sound echoing back and forth across the river valley, ..."
    ...“Below them is spread all the mountain's layered scenery, with all its textures and colors: the green terraced fields of wheat, split into neat rows; the plots of rapeseed(油菜花), their buds a wild range of yellow glory; the soft flowered paulownias, rising above gray-roofed houses; ...
      我们家一年上两次坟,一是过年的时候,二是清明。小时候外婆家里人丁兴旺,每次去上坟,总是前前后后一大串人,外婆、外公、大姨妈、姨爹、三个表姐、我家爸妈、我哥加我、三舅、舅母、表妹、五姨、幺姨、陈叔叔(幺姨老公),后来又有五姨的小孩和幺姨的小孩。对于小孩子来说,去给那些我们未曾谋面的祖祖、曾祖祖上香放鞭并没有什么实质性的意义,更多的,那是我们一年一度的家庭春游,或者算是踏青,虽然经常踩了一脚的泥。
      可惜等我们长大了,这一大家子人却渐渐散了。外公去世了,外婆岁数大了不能跟我们一起翻山越岭了,一般就在山脚下歇着让子孙们替她去探坟。大姨妈和姨爹已经成了新生一代的外公外婆,姨爹又是他们王家的长兄,他一般就带上王姓的一大家子人去他的父母那上坟。三舅近几年总是回舅母在重庆的老家过年。五姨离婚已经多年了,独自把女儿周雪(原名李雪)抚养大。大幺姨跟她赌博成瘾的老公的关系也早已名存实亡,独自带着我表弟陈方思(小名冲冲)。最近几年去上坟,剩下的也就是这点人了,而且基本就只到火葬场的公墓给外公拜年就算万事。加上今年我已经身在海外,我哥又混迹宁波一带,估计今年春节家里更是冷清。

    看看下图谁是我,谁是我哥?  ...
      "The family climbs to the east of the cliff wall, where the slope is more gradual, and after thirty minutes they come to the home of He Zhonggui's cousin. He is a peasant who lives above the mountain's initial rise, and everybody stops to rest here on the edge of his threshing platform, in the shade of the farmhouse's tiled eaves. For peasants, the threshing platform is the center of home life - this is where grain is threshed, spices are dried, vegetables are cut, grandchildren raised, visitors are served tea. And this particular platform, perched high above the river, has a view whose magnificence quiets today's guests."
      以前南川没有出租车,也没有摩的,去上坟总要从家里长途跋涉到郊区的山上,来去数小时。跟Peter文中的那家人一样,我们在上坟的路上也住着一家农村的亲戚,我记得那家人带头的一个女人我叫姑妈。每次上坟回来总是顺便到她家拜年,然后她家又照例办几桌酒席,大家吃罢才归去。后来城里有taxi了,人也懒了,每次总是叫几辆车呼呼直奔火葬场给去世的外公上坟,然后又呼呼开回家,再也没有人去那个老姑妈家吃饭了。多年未见,不知道她家现在又怎么样了。
      当然,书中描述的打谷坝更像我们在远郊的一家农村亲戚的家门口的样子。那地方叫铁村坝,很穷,有时候我们坐车去那给外婆外公的爷爷辈上坟的时候也顺便带些不再穿的衣服送给那家有好多小孩的穷亲戚。那几座坟就在他们家屋后的山坡上。跟这些远房亲戚真的是很生疏,一年才走一回,甚至有时候找不到车,就不去或者三舅等代表去了。

    从上到下,我爸,我哥,三舅,表弟...
      “The visitors have walked single-file (在田埂上鱼贯而行,真的是一道风景啊,可惜当年没有数码相机)through wheat fields to the graves, careful not to trample the young stalks, and now they light fat red candles (又大又肥的红蜡烛,有意思)and burn piles of paper money.
      The bills, which are in denominations of $800 million, say “Bank of Heaven” on the front (阴钞,hh). They are legal tender in the next world. The money crumples into black balls of ash as the fire flickers and gasps. The candles dance in the Yangtze wind. Waves of heat come and go as the flames rise and fall.
      The old woman kowtow and pray before the burning money. After they finish, the children take their turns, urged on by their elders. They giggle and sloppily kowtow three times, kneeling on strips of paper so there trousers and dresses won’t get dirty, and then they close their eyes and pray, sometimes aloud. “Please help me do well on my examinations,” murmurs Dai Mei’s cousin, a sixteen-year-old boy in glasses.”
      实在是跟我们家上坟的情形一模一样。三舅是外婆家的长子也是唯一的儿子,一般是他带头点上香火纸钱,然后向祖先跪拜或行礼。然后是女人们,包括我妈,我爸是上门女婿,一般也就行个礼。我呢一般比较虔诚,或者是办事认真吧,多半是毕恭毕敬敬上三个大礼。到近几年跟自己相处多年深有感情的外公上坟的时候,我都是跪在地上老老实实的磕头了,算是敬上孝心。而表妹周雪来磕头的时候就真的是连搞连giggle,然后念念有词“外公保佑我考上大学”云云。
      "Afterward, the groups files back through the wheat, but three young men stay behind. For most of the ritual they have hung back, tolerant but cool and uninterested; they are in their twenties, and the Day of Pure Brightness is not a young man’s holiday. But now they clamber up and stand on the graves, holding cigarettes and long strands of fireworks, and then they light the fuses.
      Ghosts and evil spirits scatter as the fireworks explode. The children clap and scream; the old people hold their ears and turn away. The young men remain calm – the fireworks erupt in a deafening roar, but each man holds the exploding string in hand until the flame leaps nearly to his fingers, and then, nonchalantly, he drops the strand and lights another. They do not plug their ears. They do not laugh or grimace. They make no expression at all; outwardly they are completely cool."
      "But something in their eyes can not be controlled, flashing with the sheer exhilaration of standing on the tomb while all the scenes and sounds of the holiday suddenly converge on this spot: the throbbing explosions, the heavy smell of gunpowder, the swirling dust and smoke and sunshine, the long streak of the Yangtze far below like a dragon basking in the sudden roar of the valley."


    别看陈方思平时酷的很,初中最崇拜在舞台
    上摔吉它的谢庭峰,此刻却不顾形象了
    真的是活灵活现!我小时候特别羡慕大人们放鞭炮的样子:一手直接拎着一串鞭炮的一头,嘴里叼一支香烟,深吸一口,另一手把嘴里的香烟拿到手中,然后伸到鞭炮的一头点燃引线。在这过程中他们的表情都是严肃的,包括鞭炮开始劈里啪啦乱窜的时候,他们都不会笑的,整个一副酷像。等引线一直快烧到手了,他们才把最后的鞭炮扔到空中,只听得高高的几声脆响,硝烟在空中弥漫。


    注:本文中所有英文皆为引用River Town书中原文。
      
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    评论

  • 每次搜river town,都能搜到让人感动的东西
    上坟,也是很令人怀念的意象,每年春节都要回去上坟

    涪陵人飘过~~~
  • 这真是一本很有意思的书, 尤其是生活在国外的中国人会感受更深, 我读得最亲切的是他在学校上课那些段落: )

    非常有意思博客, 会常常来看看: )
  • 我也想起了小时候去上坟,虽然是不尽相同的风俗,不同的地域